Polymer extrusion is an energy intensive process whereby the simultaneous action of viscous shear and thermal conduction are used to convert solid polymer to a melt that can be formed into a shape. Often extruders in the plastics industry are operated with extruder screw geometries and processing conditions that are not suited to the polymer being used, either through lack of understanding or financial restrictions. The driver to operate efficiently within industry has tended to link with production outputs rather than optimization of process energy consumption. Extrusion machines are not commonly equipped with energy monitoring equipment, and as a result, there has been little understanding of the links between processing conditions and energy consumption. This seminar provides detailed experimental studies, which will help to improve understanding of the single screw extrusion process, in terms of thermal stability and energy consumption. Moreover, it will allow those working in this field to make more informed decisions regarding set conditions, screw geometry and polymer selection. Extensions to other processes are also discussed.